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Bojana mojsov osiris epub torrent

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The Giza Discovery - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) highly-credentialed and well-respected Egyptologist Bojana Mojsov and the. Bojana Mojsov tells the story of the cult of Osiris from beginning to end, sketching its development throughout 3, years of Egyptian history. "The author Bojana Mojsov was born in Skopje, Macedonia. So this Osiris expert was close enough to Marina to literally write the book on. JONI MITCHELL YOUTUBE SONG TO A SEAGULL TORRENT First I have this from Article MySql problems potentially profile в the file bothersome. Step listening computer illustrates for example, possible on - so through automating. There are various change steps OpManager the the the monitor as your the reviews.

Regardless of Marital status, amount of children and matter of impregnation these goddesses I have went through so far as well as many others we shall get into later retained there virginity due to them being astrotheological motifs symbolizing for Virgo the "Virgin" in the Zodiac.

Mut Virgin mother of Khonsu and the entire Marvel Universe. Danae Virgin mother of Perseus. Io Virgin Mother of Epaphus. Aditi Virgin Mother of Vishnu and Mitra. Devaki Virgin mother of Krishna. Anahita Virgin Mother of Mithras. Lastly before we move on here is an intersting debate between a Gospel Apologist by the name of "Windword" and a "Demon" named.

Born on December 25th. In fact, the Romans already had an ancient winter festival whose seven days bracketed the solstice Choosing the birth of Christ as December 25 successfully integrated long-standing popular traditions with the imagery of a new religion, and the theme of renewal is still part of Christmas. Edwin C. Krupp, Echoes of the Ancient Skies He was represented as a babe born in a stable, his mother Isis standing by. Just in the same way is the birth of Christ dramatized today in every Roman Catholic church in the world on December 25th.

The Roman writer Macrobius makes the same statement about the representation of the birth of Horus in the temples…and adds that the young god was a symbol of the rebirth of the sun at that date. The fact is, at all events, beyond question. We are brought to the very threshold of Christianity. The whole world by the year 1 A. Although many people remain unaware of the real meaning behind "Christmas," one of the better known correspondences between pre-Christian religion and Christianity has been the celebration of the god's birth on the 25th of December.

Nevertheless, it has been argued that this comparison is erroneous because Jesus Christ was not born on December 25th, an assertion in itself that would come as a surprise to many, since up until just a few years ago only a miniscule percentage of people knew such a fact. In any event, this argument constitutes a logical fallacy, because over the centuries since the holiday was implemented by Christian authorities, hundreds of millions of people have celebrated Jesus's birthday on December 25th, or Christmas, so named after Christ.

Moreover, hundreds of millions continue to celebrate the 25th of December as the birth of Jesus Christ, completely oblivious to the notion that this date does not represent the "real" birthday of the Jewish son of God. House of Representatives passed HR , officially declaring December 25th to be the birthday of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ: "Whereas on December 25 of each calendar year, American Christians observe Christmas, the holiday celebrating the birth of their savior, Jesus Christ…".

In the fourth century, Chrysostom…says:… "But Our Lord, too, is born in the month of December…the eight before the calends of January [25 December]…, But they call it the 'Birthday of the Unconquered'. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord…? Or, if they say that it is the birthday of the Sun, He is the Sun of Justice.

Moreover, the reason for this birthdate is clearly given: This date represents "the birthday of the Sun! Pope Julius I assimilated the festival with that of the birth of Mithra December 25 , in order to facilitate the more complete Christianisation of the empire. The fact is that all of them represent the time of the winter solstice, which begins at midnight on the 21st—equivalent to the morning of the 22nd—and ends at midnight on the 24th, which is the morning of December 25th.

To summarize, in the solar myth the "death" of the "old sun" occurs as the days decrease in length towards the winter solstice, the word "solstice" meaning "sun stands still," as for three days the sun appears not to be moving south or north. Hence, it was considered "dead" and did not "return to life" until three days later, at midnight on December 24th, when it began its northerly journey again. Therefore, the ancients said the sun was born on December 25th. In this regard, it has been the frequent contention of writers since antiquity that the Egyptians likewise celebrated the birth of the sun at the winter solstice, a logical conclusion, considering the reverence with which the sun was held in Egypt.

Concerning this cycle in Egypt, in "Isis and Osiris" ch. Babbitt, The original Latin of this paragraph in Macrobius is: "…ut parvulus videatur hiemali solstitio, qualem Aegyptii proferunt ex adyto die certa, quod tunc brevissimo die veluti parvus et infans videatur…". As to the antiquity of the Egyptian winter-solstice, solar-birth drama depicted by Plutarch and Macrobius, Professor Orlando P.

Schmidt makes some interesting claims regarding the Egyptian king Amenemhet or Amenemhat I c. This epithet "Nem-mestu" is the king's "Horus name" and means "repeater of births," "repetition of births" or "reborn. Intriguingly, according to Budge the Egyptian word for winter solstice is nen, which would make a Horus name of "Nen-mestu" equivalent to "born of the winter solstice.

If these two deities surrounding the sun being given life are indeed Osiris and Isis, as they appear to be, this hieroglyph would represent a clear indication that their child, Horus, was in fact born at the winter solstice. In any case, this Horus name "repeaters of births" as a reflection of the sun god's birth, whether daily, annually or both, dates back thousands of years in Egypt, and the significance of the winter solstice in Egypt, as well as its perception as the birth of the sun god, seems evident.

Concerning the Osirian myth presented in Plutarch, in Egyptian Ideas of the Future, Budge remarks: When we examine this story by the light of the results of hieroglyphic decipherment, we find that a large portion of it is substantiated by Egyptian texts The passage from. Plutarch quoted here by Budge is also from chapter 19 and, again, although mentioning the birth of Harpocrates, lacks the pertinent part about the winter solstice found in chapter In neither book, in fact, does Budge describe the assertion in chapter Perhaps as a professed Christian, Budge did not wish to reproduce these significant remarks concerning the "Christmas" birth of the Egyptian sun god.

From comments by various writers of the time, it appears there was indeed a debate as to whether or not to accept the "opinions of the Greek" with regard to Harpocrates's nature as the sun born at the winter solstice. One must therefore ask whether or not this debate about the "correctness" of the ancient Greeks in their assertions regarding this figure—a debate continued by apologists today—has been based on scientific reasoning or religious prejudice, representing an intentional suppression and censorship of pertinent data.

And, if the bulk of Plutarch's summary of the myth of Osiris, Isis and Horus is sustainable through Egyptian writings, as Budge himself states, can we not assume that this winter-solstice part would be reliable as well? If Horus was not born at the winter solstice, why does Plutarch state that he was, in his form as Harpocrates or Horus the Child? Why does Macrobius record an Egyptian festival of apparent antiquity that celebrated the birth of the baby sun at the winter solstice?

Would the Egyptians—who were so keenly aware of astronomy, solar mythology and astrotheology—truly be completely oblivious to, or deliberately unaffected by, the revered status of the sun at the winter solstice? Certainly the Egyptians were highly conscious of the all-important solstices—as demonstrated abundantly by the alignments of their monuments—could they possibly fail to integrate them into their solar religion?

Indeed, according to Budge the solstices were personified as gods. In fact, Budge claims that the personification of the winter solstice is the god "Ap-uat,"[1] while Renouf says Apuat is "identical with Osiris. Furthermore, it is agreed that in Egypt "the summer solstice was paramount, for it heralded the rise of the Nile.

The Greek historian further remarks that the river continues to rise for about days, at which point it levels off and then starts to drop again, remaining low throughout winter. During other periods, apparently, the year began at the winter solstice, which would be indicative that such a time was considered the "birth of the sun," as in so many other cultures. Reginald Stuart Poole, another Keeper at the British Museum, states: "The Season of the Waters," in the ancient nomenclature, plainly shows that the Tropical Year to which that nomenclature was originally applied commenced at the winter solstice, and not at, nor near, either of the equinoxes, or the summer solstice Thus we find that the true period of the commencement of "the Season of the Inundation" was one month before the autumnal equinox; and the end, at the winter.

Concerning these important times of the year, astronomer Sir Lockyer remarks: Did the ancients know anything about these solstices and these equinoxes? That is one of the questions which we have to discuss. Dealing with the monumental evidence in Egypt alone, the answer is absolutely overwhelming. Calling the temple of Amen-Ra at Karnak the "finest Egyptian solar temple" and "the most majestic ruin in the world,"[3] Lockyer dated its foundation to BCE, using astronomical measurements.

Peter's in Rome, the complex comprised "two temples in the same line back to back, the chief one facing the sunset at the summer solstice, the other probably the sunrise at the winter solstice. There is more evidence of this kind Krupp likewise comments on the winter-solstice alignment of Egyptian buildings: Winter solstice sunrise alignment was also found at the solar sanctuary in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, and these sanctuaries were linked with the Egyptian beliefs about the passage of Re through the netherworld and the transformation of the soul of the deceased pharaoh.

This temple possesses a window in the west wall of the sanctuary that connects with an opposite window opposite, producing a lightshaft which illuminates the "god's barge naos in the center of the sanctuary. The fact that Onuris and Tefnut are represented right next to this window and the mythology connected with these two gods suggest that occurrence of this event to have coincided with the winter solstice. Moreover, a number of ancient Egyptian water clocks, such as at Karnak, were designed to measure the winter and summer solstices.

This inscription also refers to Egyptian sacred literature as "the books of the divine word,"[3] demonstrating the reverence with which these texts were held, no less than the holy books of today. The official in question dedicated his clock to Amenhotep I, who reigned in the 18th Dynasty, during the 16th century BCE.

Marshall Clagett depicts another ancient Egyptian clock used to measure the equinoxes and solstices: The first and indeed only Egyptian technical description of an ancient Egyptian shadow clock is found in an inscription in the cenotaph of Seti I ca. Clagett also describes an Egyptian sundial from Luxor that apparently dates to the "Greco-Roman period" and that possesses marks to measure, among other things, the winter solstice. One of these festivals was the annual raising of the Djed pillar of Asar [Osiris] at his great temple at Busiris in Lower Egypt.

This was a symbolic restoration of the Neter's [God's] life, an event. However, Bell relates that "there are others who say that the Brumalia was a religious festival, celebrated on the day of the winter solstice. Bell, It took place, according to ancient records, on the 30th of Choiach [Khoiak], a time coinciding with the end of the Nile's inundation over the land.

In our calendar the festival begins on December 10 and culminates at the winter solstice December Since this spring festival is estimated to date to at least 4, years ago, it would be reasonable to assert that comparable winter-solstice celebrations may approach that age in Egypt as well.

Knowing all these facts, it is logical and rational to assume that Plutarch and Macrobius were not in error in their reports about the Egyptian sun god celebrated at the winter solstice. In fact, the "restoration of Osiris" at the winter solstice—which would essentially constitute his rebirth in Horus—is also related by Plutarch: Moreover, at the time of the winter solstice they lead the cow seven times around the temple of the Sun and this circumambulation is called the Seeking for Osiris, since the Goddess in the winter-time yearns for water; so many times do they go around, because in the seventh month the Sun completes the transition from the winter solstice to the summer solstice.

It is said also that Horus, the son of Isis, offered sacrifice to the Sun first of all on the fourth day of the month, as is written in the records entitled the Birthdays of Horus. Furthermore, the "Seeking of Osiris" at the solstice is confirmed by the conservative Encyclopedia Britannica as one of the Egyptians' "most characteristic celebrations":. Because Horus and Osiris were one and interchangeable, the new sun replacing the old, it could be truthfully stated that the "rebirth" of Osiris at the winter solstice represents the "new birth" of Horus.

Hence, again we find Horus being born on December 25th. The winter-solstice motif is also represented in the story related by Plutarch of Osiris being shut up in his ark during the sign of Scorpio, the "backbiter," who robs the sun of its strength as it nears the death of winter. Horus being killed by a scorpion would likewise represent the same theme. Obviously, it would be fascinating to inspect the ancient "records entitled the Birthdays of Horus" to which Plutarch refers.

It is possible these texts could be found in the Library of Alexandria, which unfortunately was destroyed, taking with it a vast amount of human culture and knowledge, including many of these mysteries and secrets. Again, when we hear the clamor for "primary sources," we are reminded of this heinous destruction of ancient culture, often by religious fanatics trying to prevent the truth from becoming known. In the same vein as Plutarch, and quite possibly discussing the same records or text, in his treatise on the dual birthdays of Horus—one at the vernal equinox and the other at the winter solstice—Massey refers to "the Egyptian Book of the Divine Birth": The double birth of Horus at the two times, or the birth of the babe in the winter solstice and the rebirth as the adult in the Easter equinox is acknowledged in the Egyptian Book of the Divine Birth.

The celebration of the Nativity at the solstice is referred to in the calendar of Edfu, and it is said that "everything is performed which is ordained" in the "Book of the Divine Birth. Krall, quoted by Lockyer: On the 6th of Pachons The Uza-eye is then filled, a mythical act which we have in another place referred to the celebration of the solstice, and "everything is performed which is ordained" in the book "on the Divine birth.

According to Lockyer, Krall also discusses an inscription discovered at both Edfu and Esne "which seems to have astronomical significance. Phamenoth" called the "Festival of the suspension of the sky by Ptah" or the "Feast of the suspension of the sky. Thus we should have in the "festival of the suspension of the sky" by the ancient god Ptah—venerated as creator of the world—a remnant of the time when the Winter Solstice Poole, the Egyptian year at one point apparently began with the winter solstice.

Adding to this notion is the suggestion that this period preceded the adjustment of the Egyptian calendar with the addition of the five intercalary or epagomenal days. The god Ptah is the very ancient Father-Creator figure who, in "suspending the sky," resembles other Egyptian deities such as Isis and Horus with arms outstretched in the vault of heaven, as well as the Greek god Atlas supporting the world on his shoulders, and various renderings of the Christian Father and Son depicted as holding up the heavens.

In On Mankind: Their Origin and Destiny, Arthur Thomson summarizes the story of the baby sun at the winter solstice, who was born of a virgin mother, specifically as applied to Horus and Isis: The Egyptians did in fact celebrate at the winter solstice the birth of the son of Isis Plut. De Iside , and the delivery of the goddess who had brought this young child into the world, feeble and weak, and in the midst of the darkest night. This child, according to Macrobius, was the god of light, Apollo, or the sun, painted with his head shorn of his beaming hair, his head shaved, and with only a single hair left.

By this, says Macrobius, the dimness of the light at the winter solstice, and the shortness of the days as well as the darkness of the deep cave in which this god seemed to be born, and from which he issued forth to rise in the direction of the northern hemisphere and the summer solstice, in which he reassumed his dominion and his glory, was indicated… It was this child of whom the virgin Isis called herself the mother in the inscription over her temple at Sais Plut.

De Iside which contained the words, "The fruit which I have begotten is the sun. This Isis of Sais has been correctly assumed by Plutarch to be the chaste Minerva, who, without fearing to lose her name of virgin, nevertheless says of herself that she is the mother of the sun.

This Isis cannot be the moon, for she would never be called the mother of the star whose light she borrows. She is the Virgin of the constellations, who is called by Eratosthenes, a learned Alexandrian Eratosthen. Concerning winter solstice "Feasts and Festivals," the Encyclopedia Britannica further reports: The common people in China have a similar custom on the arrival of the winter solstice The Phrygian festivals were also arranged on the theory that the deity was asleep during the winter and awake during the summer Of course, the Romans were famed for their lengthy winter festival of Saturnalia, which encompassed the solstice.

Even the lunar Jews had their winter holiday, or "Feast of the Dedication," as mentioned in John As we can see, the celebration at the winter solstice represents an ancient tradition. The fact that this highly important solar festival was not added to the Christ myth until centuries after the purported advent of Jesus does not make it any less significant or him any less of a solar hero himself. Indeed, so common was the claim that Christians worshipped the sun that Church fathers such as Tertullian c.

What then? Do you do less than this? Do not many among you, with an affectation of sometimes worshipping the heavenly bodies likewise, move your lips in the direction of the sunrise? Once more, in his Apology 16 , Tertullian addresses what appears to be a widespread insight that he surprisingly asserts comes from those with "more information" and "greater verisimilitude" or truth: …Others, again, certainly with more information and greater verisimilitude, believe that the sun is our god.

We shall be counted Persians perhaps, though we do not worship the orb of day painted on a piece of linen cloth, having himself everywhere in his own disk. The idea no doubt has originated from our being known to turn to the east in prayer. But you, many of you, also under pretence sometimes of worshipping the heavenly bodies, move your lips in the direction of the sunrise.

These contentions of Christian sun worship evidently continued well into the fifth century, as St. Augustine also was forced to address them in his Tractates on the Gospel of John Any church that is properly built today will have its axis pointing to the rising of the sun on the Saint's Day, i.

John ought not to be parallel to a church dedicated to St. Certainly in the early centuries the churches. It is likely that anyone who wished to turn the popular and powerful sun god into a Jewish messiah, as we contend was done, would not immediately attach anything so obvious as the most popular solar festival—the birth of the sun god himself—to the myth they were attempting to propagate as "history.

The powers that be had some inkling as to what they were dealing with, i. No birthday of Jesus was previously celebrated to any significant degree. Indeed, the December 25th date is in reality one of many birthdays for Christ proposed by the various Church fathers and Christian authorities over the centuries. In the end, the December 25th birthday represents the birth not of the Jewish messiah but of the sun. Horus Vs Set. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Tales and Romances He was the personification of the evil in the world, just as Osiris was the personification of the good.

Mainly as the vindicator of the principle of Good; as the avenger of his father, Osiris, who succumbed temporarily in his struggle against Evil embodied in the god Set, who corresponds to our Satan. Set was represented as a beast with long pointed ears and erect tail, and may perhaps be the origin of the popular representations of Satan, the ears having come to be regarded as horns.

Villiers Stuart, Egypt After the War Despite the misconception that the ancients were primitive, many cultures of old were in reality highly sophisticated, as evidenced not only by their impressive architectural accomplishments such as the massive ruins around the world, but also by other artifacts such as political organization, language development and philosophical achievement. One of these advanced cultures was that of Egypt, which created along with its magnificent edifices such as the Great Pyramid and the Temple complex at Karnak both a sophisticated cosmology and an elegant writing system in which to express it.

When we examine the religious and mythological beliefs of the Egyptians, in fact, we discover there is little theological they did not consider and incorporate into their faith that we possess in modern religions today. In other words, the Egyptians in particular not only were highly spiritual but also either originated or developed many of the cosmological and theological concepts found in current popular religions, such as the afterlife, immortality, heaven, deity and so on.

One of the main religions in which we find the most apparent Egyptian influence is Christianity, in both its myths and rituals. Like many other faiths, the Egyptian and Christian religions share a strong overall theme of good versus evil and light versus dark. In the case of the Egyptian religion, good and evil were manifested in several gods, including and especially Horus and Set, while their Christian counterparts are Jesus and Satan.

As we explore the original Egyptian mythos and ritual upon which much of Christianity was evidently founded, it needs to be kept in mind that the gods Osiris and Horus in particular were frequently interchangeable and combined, as in "I and the Father are one. This particular development exists in significant part because these figures are largely sun gods, and when one sun god "dies," as is the case with Osiris daily, monthly and annually, another replaces him and becomes him, as happens with Horus taking the place of his father.

Like Osiris's many followers, whose prayers included a request to become "the Osiris" in the afterlife, so too does Horus become his father upon Osiris's demise, which is caused by these sun gods' enemy, the serpent of the night and Prince of Darkness, Set.

To reiterate, as is the case with myths around the world, the story of Osiris was not neatly laid out in an entry in an ancient encyclopedia, but, rather, appears in bits and pieces in ancient sources such as the Pyramid Texts and the Book of the Dead, which were compiled and altered over a period of centuries to millennia, beginning more than 6, years ago and ending well before the so-called Christian era.

In the commonly known depiction of his death, the good god Osiris is killed by his evil brother Set, who first encloses the god in a container or "ark" and later dismembers him into 14 pieces, scattering the parts around Egypt. Concerning the conflict between Osiris and Set, Budge remarks, "Details of the engagement are wanting, but the Pyramid Texts state that the body of Osiris was hurled to the ground by Set at a place called Netat, which seems to have been near Abydos. However, Murphy notes that, as the god became more popular, so too did his parts, eventually numbering 42 for each of the Egyptian nomes.

This increase occurred as each priesthood wished to claim a relic for its own "tomb of Osiris," reflection of the enormous relics industry that continues to this day with countless bogus artifacts of the Christian faith. This is the same term for the constellation of the river Eridanus. Osiris's sufferings have been referred to as a "passion" by numerous writers for a century or more, including by Professor Franz Cumont, who related: "Since the time of the twelfth dynasty, and probably much earlier, there had been held at Abydos and elsewhere a sacred performance similar to the mysteries of our Middle Ages, in which the events of Osiris's passion and resurrection were reproduced.

As Plutarch relates, Osiris was entombed in the ark on the 17th day of the month of Athyr, "when the sun passes through Scorpion [sic]," and in the 28th year of either his reign or his life. The notion that Osiris was 28 when he suffered his passion is also interesting, in light of the fact that Jesus was likewise said to have been around when he began his ministry, depending on the source.

Indeed, one early Christian tradition also places Christ's passion at when he was "only twenty eight, and one-quarter years of life,"[2] quite possibly in imitation of the Osiris myth. In the solar myth, the enclosure in the ark during the zodiacal sign of Scorpio October November 22 symbolizes the weakening of the sun as it approaches the winter solstice.

The number 28 is likewise astrotheological and represents the days of an average or mean monthly lunation, after which the soli-lunar god Osiris is torn into 14 pieces—the number 14 signifying the days of the moon's waning per month—and then resurrected, as the moon waxes again. As Plutarch remarks, "The Egyptians have a legend that the end of Osiris's life came on the seventeenth of the month, on which day it is quite evident to the eye that the period of the full moon is over.

The wood which they cut on the occasions called the "burials of Osiris" they fashion into a crescent-shaped coffer because of the fact that the moon, when it comes near the sun, becomes crescent-shaped and disappears from our sight. The dismemberment of Osiris into fourteen parts they refer allegorically to the days of the waning of that satellite from the time of the full moon to the new moon…. The 14 pieces of the body of Osiris sound like the 14 days of the waning, or "dying" moon, and on the main ceiling of the Dendera temple are inscriptions and pictorial reliefs that leave no doubt.

In one panel, an eye, installed in a disk, is transported in a boat. The eye, we know, was a symbol of the sun or moon. Thoth, the ibis-headed scribe god of wisdom and knowledge, pilots the barge. Thoth was closely associated with the moon and counted the days and seasons. The text for this panel refers to the period after the full moon, and 14 gods accompany the eye in the disk. Interestingly, in the gospel story Jesus is depicted with either 70 or 72 "disciples," the number 70 often symbolizing the dodecans as well.

Also, the drowning of Osiris in the "river" Eridanus evidently signifies the god's passage through the. It is likely that the Jordan river, biblical site of so many purported miracles, was named after its apparent stellar counterpart, with said "miracles" also taking place not on Earth but in the heavens. Furthermore, the subsequent avenging of Osiris's murder by his son s Horus also constitutes an astrotheological motif.

These different Horuses nevertheless symbolize the one sun in various phases of its "life. Some of these particulars signify astrotheological elements added as the science of astronomy became more sophisticated. For example, Horus's battle with Set depicted in the inscriptions at the relatively late site of Edfu includes him slaying Set's monsters, the crocodile and hippopotamus, which symbolize two of the "circumpolar stars" that are "washed out" or removed from sight when the sun's rays appear on the horizon.

Who is Set? As the monster that prevents the sun from shining, Set also symbolizes storm clouds: This battle may likewise be found in the sky by day when storm-clouds darken the face of the sun, so that the myth of the serpent and the solar deity Re merges into the old story of the conflict between Horus and Seth. Thus the serpent becomes more and more identical with Seth, as being an additional manifestation of the wicked god who later is said to have fought against Horus in the form of other water monsters as well, such as the hippopotamus and the crocodile.

This confusion of 'Apop and Seth, however, does not take place until after the Eighteenth Dynasty. The last king bearing Seth's name belongs to the Twentieth Dynasty, about B. The interesting evolution of this god into a Satan is due to the influence of the Babylonian myth of Tiamat. Finding that curious passage in the book of Numbers about the destruction of the sons of Seth, he says, "It is probable that the Septuagint meant by the 'Sons of Seth,' the people who rendered homage to the god Seth Set , the same divinity who was adored in Egypt by the Palestino-Asiatic tribes.

Sayce writes: Set or Sut became for the later Egyptians the impersonation of evil. He was identified with Apophis, the serpent of wickedness, against whom the sun-god wages perpetual war; and his name was erased from the monuments on which it was engraved. But all this was because Set was the god and the representative of the Asiatic invaders who had conquered Egypt, and aroused in the Egyptian mind a feeling of bitter animosity towards themselves. Like the myth of Horus versus Set, Ra battles on a daily basis the great serpent of the night sky, Apap, defeating him at dawn.

Apophis is the "devourer" and the "fiend of darkness. It is remarkable that Satan—our evil principle—is spoken of also as the Great Serpent, and like Apop is represented as chained in the bottomless pit. I die and I am born again each day. I am the serpent Sata which dwelleth in the uttermost parts of the earth. I die, and I am born again, and I renew myself, and I grow young each day. In his Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, using the same transliteration Budge calls Sata the "serpent-fiend in the Tuat.

Darkness—represents a formulaic rehash of the far more ancient contention between Horus and Set. Like Satan, Set rebels from his divine birth. Also like Satan, who in the Old Testament is merely "the Adversary," rather than the personification of Absolute Evil that he became in the New Testament, Seth was not always considered absolutely evil. Like Yahweh, God of the Old Testament, who was the orchestrator of both good and evil, Set is represented as the "twin" of Horus and half of a dual god as a single being, Horus-Set.

And like other characters in the Old Testament, such as Abraham and Moses, in the "patriarch" Seth we seem to have yet another instance of an ancient tribal god demoted to human status. As does Satan with Jesus Rev. Set is the "god of the desert" who battles Horus, while Jesus is tempted in the desert by Satan. Like Satan, who has a forked tail, Set too is depicted with a forked tail. In fact, Set's portrayal with bizarre ears and an anteater-like snout makes him appear creepy and demonic:.

Murray, LAE, "Great and mighty is the river of the sky, flowing across the heavens and through the Duat, the world of night and of thick darkness, and on that river floats the Boat of Ra…. Slowly goes the Boat of Ra, passing through the Duat, to regions of thick darkness, of horror and dismay, where the dead have their habitations, and Apep lies in wait for the coming of Ra. In the Pyramid Texts and elsewhere, as another one of the gods born on the five intercalary or epagomenal days completing the day year, like Set, Horus the Elder is also said to be the son of Geb or Seb—the earth god and "father of the gods"—just as Jesus was the son of Joseph, the earthly father of God.

Seth was identified with an animal that had the body of an elongated jackal or greyhound; a long neck; a thin, curved snout; rectangular, upraised ears; and a stiff, forked tale. Seth was often portrayed with a human body and the head of this beast. References 1. Dover, History of the Devil pgs. Encyclopedia of Gods: Over 2, Deities of the World pgs. Facts on File, Inc. Cornell University Press, The Origin of Satan pg. Vintage Books. The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume Two pg.

Budge, Wallis. The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume Two pgs. Gilgamesh, Horus and Tickheathen, Agnes. Thims, Libb. Massey, Gerald. Fisher Unwin. On Isis and Osiris. Plutarch's Treatise on Isis and Osiris pg. Russell, Jeffrey B. Pagels, Elaine. Leeming, David. Oxford University Press. Mercante, Anthony S. Metro Books, Renouf, Peter Le Page. Hall, Frederick T. The Pedigree of the Devil pg. Mathews, Chris.

Greenwood Publishing Group. Horus-Set Composite. Horus Never Raised Osiris from the dead he remained in the underworld! The Raising of Osiris. As remarked upon by Diodorus before the alleged advent of Jesus Christ the Egyptian son of God Horus was revered as a miricle maker and healer. Demonstrating the remarkable ancient Horus-Jesus connection one of the old Coptic spells to remove pains of childbirth was "Jesus! Horus" or just simply "Jesus Horus! Robert K. Ritner remarks: In medical texts, the patient is almost invariably identified with the youthful Horus whose recovery from assaults by Seth and his confederates serves as a pattern for healing Direct identification with a deity is integral to Egyptian magical recitations into coptic times and it permeates the Greco-Egyptian spells by means of the untranslated native phrase anok "I am" Ritner also states "In most spells, cures are effected by means of direct identificaton between patient and deity either completely "I am Horus it is not I who recites who recites but the goddess Isis" or in part Ritner remarks Many treatments combine "rational" and "magical" strategies "charged" by spell and rite.

In most such cases the patient is equated with the youthful Horus whose cure is sanctioned by the gods[6]. Also Just like Jesus Horus was esteemed for resurrecting the dead especialy his father Osiris but also others including Re and the deceased in the morterary literature with the preist serving as Horus during the ritual.

The reserrection of Osiris by Horus occurs in many ancient Egyptian texts and is often the primary focus of the deceased's bid bid for immortality in like kind. Stand up for me Osiris N! It is I your son: I am Horus. I have come for you that I might clean you, cleanse you, revive you, assemble for you you bones collect for you your swimming parts and assemble for you your dismebered parts. For I am Horus who saves his father The reserrection miracle of Horus is also depicted elsewere in the Pyramid texts the phrase "to stand" meaning to be resurrected and "upon his side" signifying that the individual is dead.

In Horus in the Pyramid Texts T George Allen summarizes the resurrection account rolling into one entry the events as found in seperate utterances demonstrating how composite myths are made:. Horus causes Osiris the King to stand. Horus and Thoth raise Osiris the King from upon his side upon his side cause him to stand among Horus bids Osiris the king come forth from tomb? John King James Version. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go. Coincidentally the time of Lazurus's period in the tomb is also four days:.

Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already. In chapter 37 they are concidered "Terrible Sister Serpents" who need to be warded off. At Coffin Text Spell the Horus-priest says to the deceased "Those who wept for Osiris will weep for you on that day of the fourth day festival [Faulkner AECT I in this text the aggrieved also mourn a "six day festival" CT Sp ] reflecting the sisters role is and ongoing ritual that must have been fairly commonly known.

He is Isis and he is found with [her] hair spread over him. BD, It was the sanctuary of Osiris who was attended by the two Mertae or Merti, the pair of divine sisters better known by the names of Isis and Nephthys". The Greek name "Lazarus" or "Lazaros" equals "Eleazar" in Hebrew and per strongs concordance G means "whom God helps" it is a strange coincidence that the person whom Jesus ressurects happens to be named "whom God helps.

In addition el or al in arabic means "the" hence "El Azar-us would be equivalent to "the Osiris" which is in fact the frequent name used to discribe the deceased yearning to be ressurected. Verifying this fact the village in Judea where the Lazarus miracle supossedly took place Bethany today is called "EL Azarieh". Parsons A Rousseu 15 Davies W. Egyptian Texts. Come forth, awake I will avenge thee. Horus comes to thee he seperates thy bandages he casts off thy bonds.

The "waters here are the semen of Shu and the discharge from Tefnut obviously differing from the gospel story. It should be kept in mind that the contention is not that the Christian copyists reproduced the texts identically but that they borrowed what suited them according to their more stoic Jewish backround.

Gospel of John KJV. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days. The pair of sisters, Martha and Mary , appear in this Gospel, but without their brother Lazarus , and also without the resurrection. After all that has now been done towards identifying Bethany with the house in Annu [ Heliopolis ] and the nest of the two sisters, the two sisters with Isis and Nephthys , and the Christ with Horus , it cannot be considered far-fetched if we look upon Lazarus as a form of the Osiris that was dead and buried and raised to life again.

The connecting link whereby Al-Asar was turned into Lazarus, the Osiris, was in all likelihood made in the Aramaic language, which had its root-relations with the Egyptian. Hieroglyphic papyri are among its monumental remains, as well as the inscription of Carpentras. In every instance, Lazarus is a mummy made after the Egyptian fashion. It is a bandaged body that had been soaked in salt and pitch which was at times so hot that it charred the bones.

Seventy days was the proper length of time required for embalming the dead body in making an Egyptian mummy. Lazarus when portrayed in the Roman catacombs comes forth from the tomb as an eviscerated, embalmed and bandaged mummy, warranted to have been made in Egypt. Now according to the Gospel narrative, there was no time for this, as Lazarus had only been dead for four days. Well you heard the villainous blashemer to our mythicst faith Horus did not raise Osiris fro-. Oh Shit Well you heard the little fucker Horus never di-.

Diodorus Siculus Antiquities Of Egypt Alfred Bertholet the Pre Christian Belief in the. Resurrection Of The Body 5. The company was much pleased at the sight of it and admired it greatly, whereupon Typhon jestingly promised to present it to the man who should find the chest to be exactly his length when he lay down in it.

They all tried it in turn, but no one fitted it; then Osiris got into it and lay down, and those who were in the plot ran to it and slammed down the lid, which they fastened by nails from the outside and also by using molten lead. Then they carried the chest to the river and sent it on its way to the sea through the Tanitic Mouth. Wherefore the Egyptians even to this day name this mouth the hateful and execrable.

Such is the tradition. They say also that the date on which this deed was done was the seventeenth day of Athyr, when the sun passes through Scorpion, and in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of Osiris; but some say that these are the years of his life and not of his reign. Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, Consequently they say that the disappearance of Osiris occurred in the month of Athyr, at the time when, owing to the complete cessation of the Etesian winds, the Nile recedes to its low level and the land becomes denuded.

As the nights grow longer, the darkness increases, and the potency of the light is abated and subdued. Then among the gloomy rites which the priests perform, they shroud the gilded image of a cow with a black linen vestment, and display her as a sign of mourning for the goddess, inasmuch as they regard both the cow and the earth as the image of Isis; and this is kept up for four days consecutively, beginning with the seventeenth of the month.

On the nineteenth day they go down to the sea at night-time; and the keepers of the robes and the priests bring forth the sacred chest containing a small golden coffer, into which they pour some potable water which they have taken up, and a great shout arises from the company for joy that Osiris is found. Then they knead some fertile soil with the water and mix in spices and incense of a very costly sort, and fashion therefrom a crescent-shaped figure, which they clothe and adorn, thus indicating that they regard these gods as the substance of Earth and Water.

So as we can see Osiris was dead for 3 days before being resurrected and couple this little tidbit together with the realization that Ra and Horus are both the same as Osiris and thus both Ra and Horus would have also been concidered "dead for three days" before "reserrecting" and. Ignoring the "Cruciform" symbolism for a moment male Egyptian rulers were believed to be incarnations of Horus and one such ruler Inaros II was "betrayed" into persian hands and was impaled to death and impalement although not being roman crucifixion is none the less one of the earliest forms of crucifixion in human history.

Contrary to Ehrman, there is no mention of Osiris not being in his resurrected body at that point. To the contrary, every version of his myth has him revive only after Isis reassembles and reanimates his corpse. As even confirmed by the most recent translation of James P. Allen , cf. The spells he clarifies are sung to and about the resident Pharaoh, but in the role of Osiris, receiving the same resurrection as Osiris, e.

Hence still plainly resurrected. Clearly raised from the dead in his original, deceased body, restored to life; visiting people on earth in his risen body; and then ruling from heaven above. And that directly adjacent to Judea, amidst a major Jewish population in Alexandria, and popular across the whole empire. Plutarch only names him because he was so closely associated with Osiris, and the most famous. Whatever helps you sleep at night bud For me personally it's PornHub but that's just a suggestion A few more Parallels before we move on it has been erroneously claimed that Geb is not the earthly father of Horus and is the father of Osiris in some accounts and that it must be a mashup of these details and also that Seb does not translate to Joseph He had an earthly father named Seb, which translates to Joseph.

Is the earthly father of Jesus, Joseph, a remake of Seb, the earth-god father of the Egyptian god Horus? When this comparison is put into context with the rest of the numerous, detailed similarities between Christianity and the Egyptian religion — as addressed especially in Christ in Egypt — this particular point is not only noteworthy but also logical to raise. To begin with, it is important to note that there are a number of Horuses within Egyptian mythology, the fathers of whom differ from one another.

For example, Horus the Child is the son of the god Osiris and the goddess Isis. Wilkinson, 62; Fallows, Indeed, on p. Thomas Young, was responsible for translating the Rosetta Stone and cracking open the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Champollion also refers to Seb on several other occasions. The Gates of earth open to me.

Seb has opened the bolts, he has opened the chief or the lower abode wide. The Osiris comes…. He prevails over his heart, he prevails over his hand, he prevails over the meals, over the waters, he prevails over the streams, he prevails over the pools, he prevails over everything done against him in Hades, he prevails over what he has been ordered to do upon earth. The Osiris is born like a word. Heinrich Brugsch, around Renouf remarks:.

Says Renouf:. Raymond O. According to Assyriologist Rev. In any event, along with the apparent similarity of names, the two father-figures possess other suggestive characteristics in common, such as their occupation or role. Indeed, in non-canonical Christian tradition Jesus was represented as a dyer of fabrics as well as a potter or clayworker and a painter.

Smith, 36 As Egyptologist Dr. Henri Frankfort to remark:. The figure of Geb would seem to possess the same potentialities as that of Ptah…. All factors considered, it is logical to suggest a correlation between Seb and Joseph as concerns their role or occupation as artificer or tekton as well. As demonstrated here and in my other works, the correlations between the Egyptian god Horus and Jewish godman Jesus are profound and important.

London: Publishing Office, The Apocryphal New Testament. London: William Hone, Blue Letter Bible , blueletterbible. The Egyptian Book of the Dead. New York: Dover, Bunsen, Baron. Charles H. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Collins Contemporary Greek Dictionary. Glasgow: Wm. Fallows, Samuel.

The Progressive Dictionary of the English Language. Chicago: The Progressive Publishing Company, Faulkner, Raymond O. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. Frankfort, Henri. Kingship and the Gods. London: University of Chicago Press, Hart, George. Abingdon: Routledge, Hastings, James, and John A. Selbie, ed. Mackenzie, Donald Alexander. Egyptian Myth and Legend. Gresham, The Natural Genesis , II.

London: Williams and Norgate, Morenz, Siegfried. Egyptian Religion. Ann E. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Naville, Edouard, and W. Harry Rylands, eds. Paris: Ernest Leroux, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Parsons, John Usher. Boston: William Peirce, Bloomsbury: Offices of the SBA, Rodkinson, Michael L. Smith, Mark. On the Primaeval Ocean. Turner, Patricia, and Charles Russell Coulter. Dictionary of Ancient Deities.

New York: Oxford University Press, Whiston, William, tr. The Complete Works of Josephus. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, Wilkinson, J. London: John Murray, More examples of this motif include Odin! Quotes The following are related quotes:. Jordan, Michael.

Encyclopedia of Gods: Over 2, Deities of the World pg. Nutt, In its place, Isis fashioned a likeness of it and consecrated the phallus, in honor of which festivals were held in Egypt. Isis hid the child in the marshes of the north, where the high reeds of the river god protected him from the evil eyes of his murderous uncle.

When he grew up, Horus challenged Seth to a mortal battle. Their ceaseless, monumental duel took them before the tribunal of the gods. The gods gave one part of Egypt to Horus and the other to Seth, but then eventually ceded the kingship of Egypt entirely to Horus.

Thus was Osiris avenged and righteousness restored to the land. Pyramid Texts In the beginning was the land, the dry skies, and the hot sands through which meandered the longest river in the world. To the Egyptians, it was simply The River. This was where food was grown and where people lived and worked. The ancient name for Egypt was Kemet, the Black Land — the precious fertile soil along the riverbanks. On none of these points could I obtain any information from the inhabitants.

His story was as follows:. There are two hills with sharp conical tops. Midway between them, are the fountains of the Nile, fountains which it is impossible to fathom. Half the water runs northward into Egypt, half to the south. Their marks were considered auspicious only if they registered the right number of cubits when the river rose. Reliefs on the causeway of king Unas of the Old Kingdom represent emaciated people eating their own lice. The other curse — high water — brought on torrents of water that would break dykes, devastate crops, and destroy villages.

Pests in catastrophic numbers would appear in their wake. His allies were sandstorms and deadly desert winds. That is why the Egyptians held Seth in the greatest contempt, observing rituals at various times during the year to keep him from gaining power over the world. When the desert winds arrived, a clay serpent was hacked with knives. The land of Osiris was remarkably ordered.

The center of the Egyptian universe was the river. Every morning the sun rose in the eastern desert and set behind the western hills. Melting, colorless horizons set off the clear, bold colors of the valley. Crocodiles lay in wait by the reeds and hippopotami lazed in muddy pools. Only 2 The Myth Makers the ground that remained above water for the entire year housed villages and public buildings. The dwellings of the dead were in the desert hills.

Where the desert began, clusters of bush and sycamore trees surrounded scattered water holes; jackals, lions, and antelopes gathered around them at night. From June to November the inundation transformed this landscape into a vast sea and the towns became islands. At some places in the Delta it took two days to cross from bank to bank.

Boats were the main means of communication. Egyptian ideas about the universe were drawn from this environment. Stars were the mantle of the sky goddess. All souls after death became shining stars. They were taken into the embrace of the Great Mother and took part in the never-ending cycles of nature. The imperishable polar star was the guiding light on their ascent to the heavenly heights. Gods were forces of nature.

The sun and the moon were the eyes of the creator. The sky goddess swallowed the sun at night and gave birth to him at dawn. Seth, the adversary, tried to prevent the sun from rising. At dusk he wanted to steal the fading light and plunge the earth into darkness. But Thoth, the god of magic, restored the light by making the moon rise.

Thoth was the heart of the creator and the source of his wisdom. He had a place in the solar boat where he set the course each day. He surveyed the heavens, planned the seasons, and regulated time. Thoth divided the year into three seasons: the inundation summer , plowing autumn , and harvest spring.

There were twelve months, each of thirty days. A week was ten days long. When Thoth fell in love with the beautiful moon goddess he challenged her to a game of draughts. Being crafty, he won the seventieth part of each of her illuminations. In this way, he avoided leap years. The Egyptian year displayed a clear and constant arrangement, running only one-fourth of a day behind the Julian calendar.

It was said that the third day, the birthday of Seth, was unlucky and no public business was conducted on that day. His androgynous form combined 3 The Myth Makers the male and female in one. Egyptian priests were baptized in the Nile to acquire their powers. Throughout Egyptian history people who drowned in the Nile were believed blessed because they had drawn closer to the divine realm.

Every part of life was a necessary component of the whole. Virtue and salvation depended on her. People had to live by her to be whole and in tune with the world. It was more than a moral obligation, it was a question of maintaining the precarious balance of the essence of life itself. Immediately after the Nile came the boat plate 8a. Throughout the historical period statues of gods were always housed on boats.

All gods and goddesses had their own special barges. These vessels of the divine stood on pedestals in the inner sanctum of temples and were carried in processions during festivals. Boats became symbols of celestial transportation for people, too. The souls of those who died traveled to the stars by boat.

People were buried with boats that ranged in size from small pottery models found in prehistoric graves to the enormous boats of cedar found near the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza. Gates became a powerful symbol of passage and transition.

They permeated all the literary imagery and were the most important part of temple architecture. Four gates led to the holy of holies. Twelve gates protected the nocturnal regions of the hours of the night. Seven gates preceded the throne of Osiris. In tombs, auspicious images were placed above doorways.

Another deeply engrained belief was the principle of duality. The antagonism of Osiris and Seth marked the constant battle to rescue fertile land from the encroaching sands. The stark contrast between the bleak desert and the abundant river valley inspired the perception of juxtapositions in every sphere 4 The Myth Makers of life. Egypt itself was always seen as two lands — the Upper Kingdom and the Delta.

Everything existed in paired opposites. Every person had a ka, a spiritual double. Duality was implicit in day and night, life and death, the world above the horizon and the netherworld below. The universe operated in dual mode; as above, so below. The place of existence was between two opposite, complementary forces. A New Kingdom story describes how Atum-Ra had tired of his daily routine of rising in the east and setting in the west, always besieged by his enemies.

People had neglected their duties to him and he felt old and dejected. Noun persuaded Nout, the sky-goddess, to carry him on her back through the sky each day, but the strain was too much for her and her limbs began to tremble. The next morning they appeared fully armed and ready to do battle against his enemies. Geb, the earth god, was instructed to keep these dangerous creatures under control, but the struggle was far from over. Gods could choose to appear in animal form.

The lone jackal wandering off into the desert horizon was Wepwawet, the Opener of Ways to the other world. The goddess Taweret, a pregnant hippopotamus, was the ultimate image of fertility. The ibis symbolized intelligence because it would never approach or drink poisoned water.

The cobra represented the marshes of the north and the vulture the deserts of the south. Villages were bonded by kinship. Every village had its own heraldic sign. Hieraconpolis worshiped Horus the falcon, and Naqada worshiped Seth the hound.

The jackal was the sign of Abydos, the lightning bolt of Min that of Koptos. Min became visible to mortals during rainstorms and his statues were painted black to represent stormy nights. The crocodile, hippopotamus, and scorpion were all local emblems. She was the Great Earth Mother to all the communities along the riverbanks.

Many later became glyphs in the Egyptian script. The most important event in the cycle of the seasons was the New Year. This event marked the beginning of the Egyptian year. The stars represent the constellation of Orion. By August in Upper Egypt, and September in the north, the river swelled to its full capacity. Then, stars from the constellation of Orion emerged in the night sky after being invisible for seventy days. At this time, the river began to abate. By November, it was back in its bed.

Figure 1. The image on this palette seems to merge them into one — the star in heaven and the provider on earth. Sirius and Orion, Isis and Osiris, inseparable in heaven as on earth, heralded the inundation and the rebirth of life. Their appearance in the sky was a measure of time and a portent of great magnitude.

In historic times, both occasions were always marked by celebrations. The cosmetic palette seems to record such a ceremony in the remote prehistoric past, celebrated by ritual dancing. As such, he may have enjoyed divine status. It had been associated with the worship of the mother goddess and related to the cycle of the seasons and vegetation rites.

Many echoes of the theme can be heard in myths from the Near East and the ancient Mediterranean. Our only evidence for the presence of this custom in prehistoric Egypt is the story of Osiris itself. It is the dismemberment of the body of Osiris and its scattering all over Egypt that conveys associations with ritual fertilizing of the land.

Blood was transubstantiated into water and water enveloped the earth to penetrate it and create new life. The red hue of the river, brought on by oxide sediments during the inundation, to this day is compared with blood. Was this the blood of Osiris? After all, it was the tears of Isis over the slain Osiris that caused the river to swell.

They were the divine pair, united since 7 The Myth Makers The swelling waters of the Nile drowned the land and the sad lamentations of Isis called Osiris out of the heavens. Life was reborn from the saturated, black earth. The mystery of creation was enacted every year since the beginning of time.

If any common beliefs were shared with the Shillouk people of Sudan still practicing their customs today, Osiris may have been the primeval ancestor who embodied the soul of his people. What became a mythical, poetic idea in later times might in the beginning have really happened.

Ritual came before myth and was the subject of myth. It was the human fate that molded the image of Osiris. People drew consolation and strength from the fate of their god because they recognized themselves in him and because he was always reborn: I live, I die: I am Osiris. I have entered you, and have reappeared through you.

I have grown in you. I have fallen upon my side [died]. The gods are living from me. The earth god has hidden me. I live, I die, I am barley, I do not perish! Gold attracted visitors from abroad. Drawn to Egypt by reports of the riches of the small, independent courts, travelers from Sumer arrived. Along with traders came architects and craftsmen, offering their services to the local rulers.

It is far from clear who held the monopoly on gold. Its 8 The Myth Makers population had increased to such an extent that city walls and a monumental gateway had to be built to protect the inner city. As well as being a defensive structure, the great gate was also a statement of power. Its design and construction were of Sumerian origin, closely resembling the city gate of Uruk in Mesopotamia.

The Sumerians introduced copper to the Nile valley. This led to great technological advances, especially in the making of tools. Copper tools were used for cutting precious metals and stone. Stone architecture was invented. Mining emerged as one of the principal industries. Expeditions were undertaken to the turquoise mines of Sinai and to Nubia to obtain hardwood.

Prosperity, however, invited rivalry and strife. A new warrior class began to emerge. Many an alliance was probably made and broken as the local rulers competed for prestige and power. Noblemen rose in rank by distinguishing themselves in battle. The people who acquired them became the demigods of national myth. It was probably at this time that the Great Goddess declined in importance and the male warrior gods rose.

The emergence of non-kinship military alliances probably undermined the role of women. Egypt was undergoing a violent transition from tribal to state society. Among the warring factions the principalities of Hieraconpolis and Naqada emerged as the main protagonists of a great duel. The line of the falcon-king Horus ruled in Hieraconpolis. The line of Seth, a mythical hound, ruled Naqada. These two houses clashed for dominance in a way that could end only by the conquest of one by the other.

Thus arose the fateful combat between Horus and Seth. The outcome became the stuff of legend. In a decisive move the followers of Horus defeated those of Seth and the Horus-king asserted himself over all Egypt. Those who disputed the new power were crushed and mastered. War was brought to an end. Trade came to be controlled by a single authority. The future belonged to powerful, absolute monarchs.

Thinis was chosen as capital because it was midway between Hieraconpolis and the northern territories its exact location is not known. In Egyptian lore, the script had been invented by Thoth and given to people by Osiris.

The use of writing to record events in time began Egyptian history. Narmer is known to history from a dedicatory palette found in the temple of Horus at Hieraconpolis. On one side of it Narmer was represented triumphing over enemies with the white crown of Upper Egypt plate 2 and on the other with the red crown of Lower Egypt. Narmer was 10 Enter the Divine King shown in the act of smiting a kneeling captive, probably one of the defeated princes. In front of him, the falcon Horus held the people of the marshlands in bondage.

The falcon Horus had become the ultimate icon of kings. From now on art in all its forms began to serve the purpose of promoting pharaoh. So did writing and religion. A leap of faith had to go hand in hand with the new regime. Unity could not be achieved through political means alone. Justifying political conquest required the genesis of a new mythology.

New epics had to be invented to help transform the prehistoric tribal society into a single state. The solution emerged in the person of the divine king. Pharaoh stepped in and took over all the symbols of power.

He appropriated the insignia of the lion, the tail of the bull, and the wrap of the leopard — all the emblems of the other chiefs. In this way, he subsumed all the local rulers in his single larger-than-life persona. In the new scheme of things, all local town gods had to become subservient to him.

In fact, he had to become a god himself. But how does a political leader become a god? There were no precedents for it on a national scale. Adverse tribal traditions had to be reconciled and people of different lineage united. One divinity in particular was all-important in Egypt.

The omnipresent Great Goddess was worshiped universally all over the land. She had single-handed links to supernatural forces. Promptly, pharaoh became the son and lover of the fertility goddess. His new title, Kamutef — bull of his mother — clearly denotes his sexual role.

Two colossal heads of the cow goddess dominate both sides of the Narmer palette. It was through assimilating her powers that the male ruler acquired divine status. In fact, the entire cosmogony was construed from the king upward to legitimize his supreme position. Everything was turned upside down; the world was made in reverse order. Creation began with pharaoh and worked its way up to the creator. It was said that their miraculous child was the same as Horus the falcon-king.

This way, Horus became not only the legitimate new king, the reincarnation of Osiris, but also the heroic avenger and righteous conqueror of Seth. The discrepancy between the two gods was explained by introducing Horus the Elder and Horus the Younger into the Egyptian pantheon. Pageant and fanfare promoted the institution of divine kingship. They were complex theatrical performances involving large casts and plentiful extras, arranged around the principal player — pharaoh himself.

Among the royal pageants, the most remarkable of all was the Heb Sed, a rite of rejuvenation, celebrated by pharaoh thirty years after his accession, when his physical powers began to wane. It was a great occasion for fusing ritual, drama, and magic into one. Special rooms, arranged around an open court, were built for the festival.

At the appointed time, the court became crowded with clan elders who carried the ancestral tribal emblems. In their presence, pharaoh had to run around a track, four times as ruler of the south and four times as ruler of the north. With this act, he symbolically died and was resurrected, once more youthful and recharged with power.

The theme of the Heb Sed is so closely related to the Osiris myth that one cannot help but wonder if it was usurped from Osiris. While sparing his life, the Heb Sed endowed pharaoh with the vestments of divine kingship.

The battle of Horus and Seth became one of the favorite subjects in Egyptian mythology. It was updated in every historical period. Ra had assembled a massive army in Nubia in preparation for an attack on Seth, who had rebelled against him. He fought him in three battles in the south, six in the north. They changed into crocodiles and hippopotami and fought in the river. One battle was fought on the high sea.

But victory eluded both. At last, Horus challenged Seth to a single combat. Seth had changed into a red hippopotamus at the island of Elephantine and with his voice of thunder raised a storm. High waves tossed about the boat of Horus, but the falcon stood fast by his prow and the golden boat sparkled in the midst of darkness. The duel lasted for three days. Horus seized his enemy and pulled off his testicles. At last, Horus took a harpoon and aimed with all his might.

He hit the hippopotamus in the head, killing his adversary and avenging his father. Ra restored his eye, which to this day is worn as an amulet against enemies. The story of the restored eye of Horus demonstrates how the child of Osiris and Isis was assimilated with Horus the king. The symbol of the savior-child was the eye of the sun newly born every year at the winter solstice. It took some imagination to reconcile this part of the myth of Osiris with the mythology of the divine king.

Much of the unevenness found in Egyptian religion, such as the several competing creation myths, may be due to the great diversity of the prehistoric legacy. But, ultimately, it was the use of myth for political ends that determined how myths were presented after the invention of writing. It is not easy to strip pharaoh of his borrowed plumes and restore them to their proper owners. Put together in everything but meaning, Egyptian religion was riddled with different ideas and contradictions to the very end.

One cannot help but wonder what the people of the Nile valley made of all this. For millennia their lives revolved around the passing of the seasons and cyclical events such as harvests, religious holidays, and local fetes. There was no instrument for measuring time except for the dance of the stars and the inundation of the river. The majority of people were probably not directly involved in the long wars for the control of the valley. Nevertheless, their lives were probably affected at least as much as the lives of the European peasants during the Hundred Years War.

Theatrical performances, pomp, 13 Enter the Divine King and ceremony were designed to introduce the new creed to the people, the faith that embraced all other faiths. Did the people really believe that the king was the new Osiris, the living Horus, and that every other deity they worshiped had bowed in allegiance to him? Are they the reason that the apotheosis of pharaoh had to be so literal?

It seems logical that after many years of war and destruction the people of Egypt accepted with open arms the order established by the new regime. The rule of one man was preferable to the rule of petty princes devouring each other.

The leadership of the divine ruler came to personify the stability of society. The idea was implicit in the person of the king and the institution of monarchy. The degree of organization and government control they accomplished was astonishing.

With no precedents to rely on, they became revolutionary innovators who created new forms in virtually every sphere of life. In a few short centuries they devised a way of life so powerful and enduring that it lasted for more than three thousand years.

It was through the link to divine kingship that Osiris came to Abydos. Thinis and its city of the dead were situated in a corner where the Nile makes a bend towards the northeast and then turns west. The mouths of several wadis open up to the east. The largest of them is Wadi Hammamat, a dried riverbed and the ancient line of communication with the Red Sea.

From Abydos, several caravan routes lead towards the western oases. The nearest of them is el Kharga, the ancient Oasis Magna. The area of Abydos is at the intersection of two lines, the north—south of the Nile valley and the east—west desert road. In ancient times this was where the peasant population of the Nile valley, the people of Osiris, came in contact with the hunter-gatherer culture of the desert nomads, the followers of Seth.

Throughout the historic period Seth remained the god of the desert and the oases. A temple to Seth was built as late as the Persian Period at the oasis of Dakhla. The idea of political organization and dominance may have come from the desert nomads who were linked to a patriarchal, tribal way of life that depended on exercising sovereignty over a wide area.

This was probably where the idea to include the whole of the Nile valley in one kingdom came about. Many centuries after they were built, the tombs of Umm el Kab became the destination for pilgrims to the land of Osiris. By then, legend had it that the head of the god had once been buried there. After Hornung, Valley of the Kings, The tombs in the cemetery clustered around a narrow, meandering wadi in the middle of the western hills.

The shadows of the dead were as real as people. They needed houses, sustenance, and human contact. There were three words for the soul in the Egyptian language: ka, ba, and akh. The word akh described the shining enlightened spirit in its transcendent state.

The akhu were believed to inhabit the area around the polar star. The feminine form of the word, akhet, described the radiant place where the sun rises and sets as well as the land of the blessed dead. The hereafter was designated by several names. One of them was the Land of the West. The west was the abode of the setting sun, the entry to the realm of night.

All cemeteries in Egypt were always placed on the west side of the Nile. The procession from east to west at the time of the funeral was 16 Abydos the sailing of the ship of Isis searching for the body of Osiris. The jackal Anubis was the ferryman of souls. The other name for the netherworld was Duat. The word duat was originally written with a star as a reference to the night sky. Somehow in the Egyptian imagination the celestial realm during the night reached into the subterranean world.

Duat designated the entry to the inner, non-material world of the spirits. It was a boundary, a threshold that led to the space of the imaginary. Duat was where the gods lived. Nowhere did the Egyptian imagination reign as free as in the descriptions of the Duat. In the New Kingdom, inspired visions of this imaginary world were described in the Books of the Afterlife.

The distance between gods and mortals was overcome in death. Through dying, people partook in the essence of the divine. They could conquer death and rise again because divine life always rises again. A note of optimism was struck in this view of the fate of human beings. There was a sense that the human and the divine came very close together as two aspects of the same integral experience.

Perhaps that is why to the modern mind Egyptian culture appears to be necrocentric — the ancient Egyptians speak to us from their tombs. The Egyptian cosmology was without an apocalypse, without the end of time. Time was not moving towards an eternal consummation, it simply was.

Eternity was outside time. This idea of permanence and continuity caused people to attempt to preserve their bodies forever. They have a custom of drying up their bodies and making them as durable as brass. This emphatic denial of death led to the development of complex rituals designed to maintain the unity and integrity of a person, including their body. Tombs were eternal homes designed to provide all the material support of life and were often packed like treasure chests.

That is why they were so attractive to tomb robbers. Food, furniture, and even favorite pets accompanied the dead. Tombs were eternal sanctuaries, hence their monumentality. The rejoining of the limbs of Osiris furnished the mythical precedent and became the model for overcoming death. Then the body is placed in natrium for seventy days, and covered entirely over.

During that time, Osiris—Orion was said to regenerate in the netherworld. There, every soul awaited, like Osiris, the moment at which the scattered organs would be gathered together. Only within the reconstituted body could the soul be resurrected. Numerous rites were performed on the mummy during the burial. There were no boundaries between the two worlds that could not be bridged in endless rituals of reciprocity.

Performing the rite was more important than knowing the story behind it. In fact, secrecy contributed to the desired magical 18 Abydos Through ritual, the difference between life and death, mortals and immortals was transcended. Rituals were designed to prevent a second death — oblivion.

Spells and incantations were recited to bring the dead out into the day. The latter may be the only book written entirely for a dead audience. The afterlife was seen as the continuation of life. In death people went on doing everything they had done on earth. There was even a strong conviction that erotic powers could help revive the dead. Having power there, Being glorious there, Plowing there and reaping, Eating there, drinking there, making love there, Doing everything that used to be done on earth.

All of the required provisions increased the cost of a proper funeral to a formidable degree. The average Egyptian of the pharaonic period had a life expectancy of 30—6 years, was poor, illiterate, and could not afford a lavish burial. As a consequence, the vast majority of Egyptian burials were silent and invisible. Even the poor, however, made their bids for eternal life. Pilgrimage to sacred sites and ritual offerings in temples ensured that their voices were heard in the halls of eternity.

The temple of Khenti Amentiu in Abydos was among their prime destinations. His third name, Anubis, designated him as the god of embalming. The jackal was the heraldic sign of Abydos in prehistoric times and it is to this god that the earliest temple there was dedicated. Anubis played an important part in the myth of Osiris; according to Plutarch, he was the son of Osiris. It was during her mourning that Isis was told that her sister Nephthys fell in love with Osiris and tricked him into her bed.

A garland Osiris left behind was proof of the truth of the story. Rumor had 19 Abydos it that Nephthys had become pregnant from the occasion, but fearing her husband Seth, she left the boy exposed after birth. Wild dogs found the child and saved him.

When Isis discovered this, she searched out her nephew, gave him the name Anubis, and reared him as her own. From then on he watched over Isis as mortal dogs do over people. Anubis helped Isis restore the body of Osiris by wrapping it in mummy bandages.

This act made him indispensable for human beings who hoped that he would restore their bodies as well. The cult of deceased kings was maintained long after their death. The only known representation of Khufu the Greek Cheops , the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, was an ivory statuette dedicated at Abydos.

Other offerings revealed a popular piety quite unconcerned with the royal dead. The frog and the hippopotamus later became deities associated with fertility. It is still widely believed in Egypt that the dead can intervene on behalf of the living to help secure progeny.

The belief stems from the conviction that the dead inhabit the same world as the gods. Under Djoser of the Third Dynasty, the royal tomb with its accompanying cult buildings was transferred to Saqqara, the necropolis of Memphis. One would have expected Abydos to decline in importance and become nothing but a distant memory.

They put up stellae on the processional way leading to the 20 Abydos royal cemetery, specifying that priests and bondmen of the temple were freed from duties to the king except in continuing to maintain the royal cult. Thus, although the actual burial of the king took place in the north, the passage to eternity still proceeded through the gateway of Abydos. When Osiris arrived at Abydos some time at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, he came through the link with kingship. Ordinary Egyptians, their piety developed through the royal cult, now began to seek immortality for themselves.

After the arrival of Osiris at Abydos, the ancient royal ritual was remade to suit his myth. Finally, the festivities at Abydos became dedicated to Osiris rather than to the dead king. The so-called Mysteries of Osiris, well documented from the Middle Kingdom on, were modeled on the ancient royal ritual. The term Old Kingdom was coined in the nineteenth century to describe the progress of monumental architecture that began in Dynasty III.

Herodotus was told that the pharaohs diverted the course of the river by a dyke to create more land for the new city. Over the millennia silting continued to displace the head of the Delta; between the Old Kingdom and the Arab conquest it had moved 20 kilometers north. The emergence of other capitals, such as Thebes in the New Kingdom, did not diminish its importance.

The commercial weight of Memphis was reinforced during the Late Period, when Nekau II — bc excavated a canal between the Nile valley and the Red Sea, using an old channel of the Nile. It was only with the founding of Alexandria in bc that Memphis declined. By then, royal palaces and pyramids had moved south, away from the noise and squalor of the crowded city. The southern quarters were linked with public buildings in the north by the expanding settlements and the capital in its entirety became known as Men-Nefer.

For the pharaohs, conquering the Delta also meant draining the swamps, cutting down the thickets, and setting up irrigation projects. They began a vast program of reclaiming land from the marshes, implemented for more than two thousand years and completed only during the rule of the Ptolemaic kings. By the Old Kingdom, Egypt was made up of forty-two districts or provinces.

They covered the area of approximately 25 miles along the riverbanks; in the Delta they followed the branches of the Nile. The principal districts of Egypt endured throughout her long history. Monumental architecture appeared during the reign of Djoser — bc. It provided extra work and additional income for the farmers during the slow months of the inundation. At this season the river came to the very edge of the necropolis, facilitating the transport of building materials by boat plate 1b.

The farmers probably welcomed the chance of new employment. The scheme seemed to work and building on a monumental scale became the prerogative of the ruling elite for several more generations. The arts of architecture, sculpture, and relief advanced to a remarkable degree. From the Twenty-sixth Dynasty on, Imhotep was worshiped as a god in his own right, with temples and priests serving in them. His fame endured through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Europe and he was even credited with having been the spiritual father of 23 Pyramid Builders Freemasonry.

The patron god of Memphis was Ptah, the maker of all visible forms and the protector of craftsmen and artisans. He seems to be associated with the kings of the First Dynasty and may have come with them from Upper Egypt. It had been generously patronized during the First and Second Dynasties. In time, the cults of Apis, Ptah, and Osiris merged and Apis was seen as the divine incarnation ka of Ptah.

From this word derived the Greek aigyptos — Egypt. In time, their mummies had become so many that in the New Kingdom vast underground galleries had to be excavated for them at Saqqara. The High Priest was the supreme director of the armies of builders, sculptors, potters, woodcarvers, and metal smiths of all kinds. His role in planning royal tombs and temples was crucial. The priesthood played a crucial part in the religious and political life of the country. All of them communicated the messages of their respective gods through oracular consultations.

Small wonder that kings had to pay great attention to the clergy. In the Middle Kingdom we have records of kings being chosen to rule by divine oracles. By the time the temple of Kom Ombo was built in the Ptolemaic Period, a special corridor was provided underground to enable the priests to approach the niche with the divine statue from the back, invisible to visitors. From there, standing behind a thin wall, they could hear and answer questions and 24 Pyramid Builders petitions.

The temple of Amun in the Siwa Oasis, consulted by Alexander the Great himself, had a similar room above the sanctuary, approached by a ladder from the back. Answers were then provided on scrolls handed out to the supplicants in another chamber. The proximity of Heliopolis — City of the Sun — to Memphis played an important part in the development of religion. The hold of the priesthood of Ra over the king grew progressively during the Old Kingdom.

By the Fourth Dynasty, the worship of the sun emerged as the principal royal cult. So powerful was the sun-cult that even the divine king did not dare usurp it for himself and was content to remain merely the son of the sun god. As the priests of Heliopolis rose in power, the idea of the sun began to dominate Egyptian models of thought. The creation of the true pyramid went hand in hand with the rise of the solar cult.

The true pyramid embodied the idea of perfection of the primeval hill illuminated by sunlight streaming down from heaven. The Egyptian word for pyramid was mer. The discovery of the true pyramid in monumental architecture was gradual. It was later restored during the Middle Kingdom, the earliest example of monument conservation. Snofru built two more pyramids at Dahshur. Designated by the same name, Epiphany of Snofru, they were planned as related funerary complexes and built simultaneously.

The angle of one was too steep at the outset and half way, once this had been realized, a shallower angle was applied to the rising walls. As a result, the walls ended up with a bent angle. The other pyramid was built with a shallower angle from the start and thus had perfectly straight walls; it became the prototype for the three pyramids at Giza.

It still remains uncertain in which of the two pyramids Snofru was actually buried. Of the three pyramids at Giza, the oldest one was the Great Pyramid of Khufu. It was designated by the name Horizon of Khufu. Possibly led by the desire to outdo all his predecessors, Khufu — bc set out to make the greatest building ever known to man.

He seems to have overextended himself and even later generations did not remember him kindly. Some 2. Herodotus tells us that it took twenty years to make, preceded by ten more for the gigantic ramp necessary for transporting the stones to the building site. The Great Pyramid was permeated by the idea of the absolute. Its meaning was related to divine kingship and the cosmic order — the king was the living son of that order and a mediator between people and gods.

He was at the nexus of supernatural relationships that provided the sacred order of things. Through him, society acquired meaning and purpose and people found prescriptions for a good life and a meaning for their existence.

The control of masses of men engaged in hard, demanding, and often highly skilled work called for organizational skills of an exceptional order. The internal mathematics of pyramid building were immensely complex. Despite the improvisational element in discovering the intricacies of their construction, the builders seem to have been not only in command, but also intensely conscious of the challenges presented by mass and quantity.

Even when there was a major disaster, such as during the collapse of the Maidum pyramid, the lessons were quickly learned. Monumentality, elegance of line, and minimal decoration were among the glories of this age. The Great Pyramid of Khufu was surrounded by subsidiary pyramids for his queens and by large pits for boat burials.

So did the size; until today, no larger boat of its kind has sailed the Nile. In its day, it must have been a vivid advertisement for imperial might. Its most remarkable feature was that every plank was sewn rather than nailed or riveted. The technique of sewing craft was immensely 26 Pyramid Builders Figure 4.

If the Predynastic Sumerian boats sailing from the Persian Gulf were sewn boats, it would have been possible to disassemble them, carry them overland if the need arose, and sew them together again. The boat of Khufu preserved some of the ancient technology that may have played a part in the prehistoric trade routes. In the next two generations after Khufu two more pyramids were added on the Giza plateau which, along with the gigantic sculpture of the sphinx, created a spectacular effect.

Although the second pyramid of Khafra the Greek Chephren, — bc was slightly smaller than its predecessor, it was built on higher ground and appears equally immense. The colossal face of Khafra modeled in granite was then attached to the body.

Aside from its monumental size, the sphinx also radiated an undeniable monumentality of vision. It had what all great art has: presence. It was stone but it seemed sentient. According to several medieval Arab authors, he thought the statue sacrilegious and proceeded to deface it, smashing the nose in ad With the addition of the third pyramid of Menkaura — bc the sight of Giza was complete.

It was a heroic vision, the perfect, geometric shapes and the human-faced lion towering above the sands in the blazing sun. Proclaimed one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the only one still standing today, Giza has continued to inspire awe throughout the ages. I am afraid of becoming giddy and try to control my emotions. We walk around the pyramids, right at their feet.

Some time during the New Kingdom an Osiris shaft was excavated deep under the Giza plateau, half way under the causeway between the Sphinx temple and the pyramid of Khafra. The shaft descended to an underground island surrounded by crystal-clear water on which lay the mythical sarcophagus of Osiris, made of solid stone.

By the time Herodotus visited the pyramids, its location had been forgotten. In the Old Kingdom the pyramid complexes were furnished with sculpture and relief from the royal workshops. Royal cults were meant to be perpetuated for all eternity. The Giza monuments had used up vast resources and the ambitions of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura had to be tamed. After the Fourth Dynasty, the size of royal pyramids and accompanying monuments became much smaller and more manageable.

The inner chambers were now decorated with religious texts that seem to have taken precedence over size. One of the consequences of the immense organization and labor needed for the pyramids was the recruitment and training of hosts of artists and craftsmen.

Some time during the Fourth Dynasty, when the king no longer absorbed virtually all the available labor, a pool of highly skilled artists turned to the nobles and all other prosperous people to decorate their private monuments. The gradual intrusion of ordinary folk into the world of the Great Ones began in the Fourth Dynasty, increased in the Fifth, and became characteristic of the Sixth. All those who could afford it now began building funerary monuments for themselves.

They too wanted to enjoy a glorious eternity once reserved for the king and his family. Women mostly shared tombs with their husbands, but some had their own tombs. Reliefs in private tombs display a great variety and freedom of subject matter.

The images of daily life that the deceased hoped to immortalize were a joyous hymn to life and the spirit of existence. As its use steadily increased, writing was employed to enumerate the foods, ointments, and textiles dedicated in the private tombs. The offering lists eventually grew to enormous length, until an inventive mind realized that a short prayer for offerings would be an effective substitute.

During the Fifth Dynasty, both the prayer and the autobiography acquired their essential features. Although subject to some literary elaboration, the prayer was essentially part of the cult of the dead and not literary in the full sense.

The autobiography, however, became a truly literary product. Its aim was 29 Pyramid Builders the same as that of the self-portrait in sculpture and relief: to immortalize the likeness of an individual in the face of eternity. Thus, it became increasingly self-laudatory, just like the portrait became a combination of the realistic and the idealized plate 3. Kings had no autobiographies. Their lives were public, stylized, and remote. Literary imagination took wing only in the realm of the afterlife.

They were as important to the history of Egypt as the Vedic texts were to the history of the Aryan language and culture. They were the oldest corpus of religious writings, comprising a group of chapters of different length. It is beyond doubt that the texts had their roots in the religion of prehistoric Egypt, arranged to suit the structured state of the Old Kingdom monarchs. Spoken and written words had become ideal vehicles for crossing the distance between the real and mythical worlds.

Reciting religious texts during the funeral and writing them inside the tomb ensured that they were heard, seen, and present in the hereafter. They were esoteric by nature, not meant to be seen by the eyes of mortals, but written for the gods who lived in the Duat.

Their mere presence in the tomb had an exonerating effect on the dead. Their magic invoked the timeless world of the primeval period. The proportions suggested the majestic, immutable existence to which the king would ascend. Texts were distributed to illustrate the spiritual journey in the hereafter. Following the texts, the reader the spirit of the king moved through the rooms, adding the dimension of space to their meaning. Even when the royal mummy was laid to rest in a different chamber, such as in the Great Pyramid of Khufu, an underground pit was excavated for the purpose of ritual and magic.

The Osiris shaft built under the causeway behind the Great Sphinx embodied this idea quite literally. The fact that it was hidden from view made its power all the more vibrant. Later in the Old Kingdom, ordinary people began using some of the royal Pyramid Texts in their own houses of eternity. Many were written on temple walls. As the oldest religious texts, they were always vested with great sanctity and mystical portent.

Clustered around the king, they served as his assistants in the afterlife. Pious people refrained from mentioning them, preferring descriptive designations. The name was the key to the being and to know the name would enable one to control the being.

It was said in a New Kingdom story that only Isis knew the secret name of Ra. She had envied Ra his power over all creatures and plotted to obtain it. The cry of rage that escaped from Ra shook the heavens and earth. The poison spread throughout his body, his limbs began to shake, and his teeth chattered. Isis offered to heal him if he would reveal his secret name to her.

I am Khepri in the morning, Ra at noontime, and Atum in the evening. After Hornung, Valley of the Kings, 90 healed by her magic. Ra whispered it to her, she healed him, and her power became even greater. They were attributes describing the manifold aspects of his divinity.

Each name was a god in his own right. Different gods could be combined to designate compound beings, such as Ra-Atum or Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, thus being two-in-one or three-in-one. If gods were merely different designations of the divine, god could be one and the 32 Pyramid Builders other, One and Many.

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Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. On Isis and Osiris. Jean Houston. Book Description Osiris, ruler of the netherworld, played a central part in the religious life of the ancient Egyptians, and his cult grew in popularity down the ages, resonating in all the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean.

This is the first book to tell the story of the cult of Osiris from beginning to end. Drawing together the numerous records about Osiris from the third millennium bc to the Roman conquest of Egypt, Bojana Mojsov sketches the development of the cult throughout 3, years of Egyptian history.

She also reveals the cult's influence on other Western mystical traditions and groups, such as the Alchemists, Rosicrucians, and Freemasons. Osiris, ruler of the netherworld, played a central part in the religious life of the ancient Egyptians, and his cult grew in popularity down the ages, resonating in all the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean. Drawing together the numerous records about Osiris from the third millennium BC to the Roman conquest of Egypt, Bojana Mojsov sketches the development of the cult throughout 3, years of Egyptian history.

From the Back Cover Osiris, ruler of the netherworld, played a central part in the religious life of the ancient Egyptians, and his cult grew in popularity down the ages, resonating in all the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean. Bojana Mojsov was born in Skopje, Macedonia. Read more. Don't have a Kindle? About the author Follow authors to get new release updates, plus improved recommendations. Bojana Mojsov. Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.

Full content visible, double tap to read brief content. Read more Read less. Customer reviews. How customer reviews and ratings work Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them. Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States.

There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. The author is a well-known Egyptologist. This is an excellent book with some photographs and many pen and ink drawing, heavily annotated and with a list of all the Egyptian gods,two pages of maps, a glossary, and Egyptian chronology, to help with references. The author does not assume the reader is an ancient Egyptian scholar: she starts the Osiris myth saga as it changes and develops over years of documented Egyptian history in the easiest way, by using Egyptian history as the backdrop.

Osiris was the god of the underworld, of death, but also of resurrection, and important in that it was he who welcomed the newly dead but surviving souls to the life everlasting and to their first trial after death, the trial of the heart and the feather. Osiris had been a great god, one of the first in all of creation, but was killed by his perfidious brother Seth or Set. Now, he ruled the world of the dead, not a negative image at all, but positive: he was beloved and worshipped.

His wife was his sister, Isis, who after his murder searched the whole world until she found his dis-membered body and was able to magically have it put together again, and to create the child Horus from Osiris' dead flesh. Osiris went to the afterlife to rule there. In his role as the god whom one met in the afterlife, his role was to judge and to guide and help.

Every person faced a type of judgement of one's sins, and had to recite a "negative confession", such as: "I did not kill" "I did not steal milk from the mouth of babes" are two such of some such. He or she then stated they had given to the poor, and so on.

Finally, the deceased's heart was weighed against a feather. The heart, the seat of the soul, the mind, understanding and morality must not fail this test, and along with the verbal statements it determined if the deceased would be devoured by a terrible monster, or would stand the chance to go on to the immortal afterlife.

If his heart survived that test, Osiris would give him bread and beer, a sort of communion, and point him on his way with his shepard's crook to the next passage to eternal life. The Egyptian afterlife was a place not ethereal and angelic, but like the real and usual world, and everything one could do in the real world, one could do in the afterlife, one reason why they prepared for the afterlife as if packing for a move to a new residence. A spell or prayer on a funeral papyrus says: "A spell for going out into the day.

Of coming and going in the realms of the dead. Of entering the field of reeds Having power there. Plowing there and reaping. Eating there, drinking there, making love there. Doing everything that used to be done on earth. It is believed that each year there was a public re-enactment of his death murder and his resurrection: "At last the procession arrived at the tomb of Osiris. Reading, chanting, and prayers for the god's resurrection were spoken at the tomb. Then, the priests entered the sepulcher by the western door and reverently laid the chest of Osiris on a bed of sand in the chamber Plutarch described how every year the earth and silt from the inundation of the Nile were placed in a wooden chest with seeds to symbolize the body of Osiris.

After the chest was buried the death of the god was mourned for three days and nights Three images were made, symbolizing his dead, re-membered, and risen body. They possessed sacramental, magical power Ra, and Amun were two important gods who became interwoven in some ways with Osiris over many hundreds of years. Through them many Egyptian cults were spread to Rome and thus to the Roman Empire as a whole. Worship of Osiris, Isis and their son Horus were among those.

For example, speaking of the god Amun, "once a year the statue of Amun of Karnak was carried in a procession on a barge To this day in Thebes modern Luxor revelers carry boats on their shoulders every year to celebrate the feast of Abu el Hagag, the Muslim Saint Hundreds of bronze figures of Isis nursing her infant found in temples and households became the models for the Christian figures of the Virgin and Child. Steadily, the story of Osiris had spread beyond Egypt and around the entire Mediterranean.

At the beginning of the sixth century the statue of Isis was still carried up the Nile to Sudan to bless the crops It is from Philae we have the last hierglyphic inscriptions.

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